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Table 3 Prenatal maternal tobacco smoking and DNA methylation, stratified by gender

From: Prenatal parental tobacco smoking, gene specific DNA methylation, and newborns size: the Generation R study

  IGF2DMR methylation H19 methylation
  bètaa 95 % CI P value bètaa 95 % CI P value
Model 1: adjusted for correlations between CpG sites, bisulphite batch, gestational age at birth
Boys       
No (n = 195) Reference Reference
First trimester only (n = 21) 0.12 −1.33; 1.57 0.870 0.18 −0.95; 1.31 0.754
Continued smoking, all (n = 81) −0.89 −1.73; −0.06 0.037 −0.41 −1.07; 0.25 0.222
P for trend 0.044 0.249
Girls       
No (n = 139) Reference Reference
First trimester only (n = 26) −1.40 −2.79; −0.01 0.048 1.04 0.04; 2.03 0.041
Continued smoking, all (n = 44) −1.46 −2.59; −0.33 0.011 −0.10 −0.90; 0.71 0.816
P for trend 0.005 0.817
Model 2: model 1 + maternal characteristics (age, educational level, parity, BMI, periconception folic acid supplement use)
Boys       
No (n = 195) Reference Reference
First trimester only (n = 21) 0.15 −1.32; 1.61 0.845 0.14 −1.00; 1.28 0.810
Continued smoking, all (n = 81) −0.72 −1.68; 0.24 0.142 −0.69 1.45; 0.08 0.078
P for trend 0.166 0.098
Girls       
No (n = 139) Reference Reference
First trimester only (n = 26) −1.25 −2.71; 0.21 0.093 1.00 −0.05; 2.03 0.063
Continued smoking, all (n = 44) −1.38 −2.63; −0.14 0.029 −0.05 −0.93; 0.83 0.910
P for trend 0.018 0.813
  1. Results from linear mixed model analyses with maternal and parental tobacco smoking as independent variable and DNA methylation as dependent variable, stratified by gender
  2. aAnalyses were performed with square root transformed methylation data and values are presented as regression coefficients (95 % confidence interval)