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Fig. 2 | Clinical Epigenetics

Fig. 2

From: Molecular marks for epigenetic identification of developmental and cancer stem cells

Fig. 2

During early embryogenesis, master transcriptional regulatory genes and signaling pathways play essential roles in cell line differentiation. Esrrb, Tbx3 and Tcl1, as well as Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2, are required for self-renewal property of ES cells. Oct4 is required to prevent trophectodermal differentiation; Nanog and Sox2 appear to be global regulators that repress multiple differentiation programs, whereas Esrrb, Tbx3 and Tcl1 are essential to block the differentiation into epiblast-derived lineages. These regulators couple with transcriptional network and control the expression ofdifferent genes through distinct molecular pathways. Downregulation of Nanog, SOX2, ESRRB, Tbx3 or TCL1 leads to the immediate induction of Otx2 (orthodenticle homolog 2), Pitx2 (paired-like homeodomain transcription factor-2), Sox18 (SRY (Sex determining region Y)-box 18), and probably additional genes, which help in the differentiation of cell lineages in epiblast. Tead4 expresses when Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 are repressed. Tead4 expression is responsible for Cdx2 gene expression that is nesessary for placenta development. Nanog directly repress GATA6, which results in repression of GATA4, thereby inhibiting primitive endoderm differentiation

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